Type 1 : [ If S — V1, S —-will + infinitive ] à Future Possibilities
If they come, I will phone you.
If the prices are low, people will buy more.
Type 2 : [ If S —V2, S — would + infinitive ] à Present Impossibilities
If he lived here, we would easily contact him.
If she were a flower, I would be the beetle.
Were we to leave today, we would get there by Sunday.
Type 3 : [ If S – had + V3, S –would have + V3] à Past Impossibilities
If they had informed us before, we would have arrived earlier.
Had it been sunny yesterday, we would have gone for a picnic.
[ S – wish S — V2] ——— à Present Unfulfilled Hope
We wish he lived here.
[ S — wished S — had + V3] ——- à Past Unfulfilled Hope
I wished you had come to the party last night.
- If he (run) he (get) there in time. (future possibility)
- The cat (scratch) you if you (pull) her tail. (future possibility)
- If the fog (get) thicker the plane (be diverted). (future possibility)
- If someone (try) to blackmail me I (tell) the police. (present/future unexpected)
- I if (live) near my officer I (be) in time for work. (But I don’t live near my office)
IF CLAUSE CONDITIONAL
( Kalimat Pengandaian )
Fungsi : Untuk mengandaikan sesuatu yang terjadi dimasa yang akan datang
Rumus: If Present Simple, Present Future
S + is/am/are + Adj/Adv/N S + will.shall + V1
S + V1 s/es S + will/shall + be + Adj/Adv/N
S + do/does not + V1
Contoh: If I am a rich man , I will buy a big house.
If She graduates , he will be very happu.
Fungsi : Untuk mengandalkan sesuatu yang tidak mungkin terjadi sekarang
Rumus : If Past Simple Past Future
S + were+Adj/Adv/N S + would/Should + be + Adj/Adv/N
S + were not+Adj/Adv/N S + would/should not + be + Adj/Adv/N
S + V2 S + would + V1
S + did not + V1 S + would/should not + V1
S + is/am/are not + Adj/Adv/N
S + is/am/are + Adj/Adv/N
S + do/does not + V1
S + V1
Contoh : • If You were my girl friend, I would take you to the moon
Fakta : You are not my girl friend so I don’t take you to the moon
• He would go home soon if his wife gave birth
Fakta : He doesn’t go home soon because his wife doesn’t give birth.
- Semua subject bila memakai to be adalah were
- Pola : If S + were dapat dihilangkan if nya menjadi: were + if + S
Rangkuman perubahan rumus dari if clause type 2 ke fakta sbb:
If Clause Type 2 Fakta
• were / (would/should be) is/am/are not
• were not / (would/should no be) is/am/are
• V2 / (would/should+V1) do/does not V1
• did not V1 / (would/should not +V1) V1
Fungsi: Untuk mengandaikan sesuatu yang sudah terjadi dimasa lalu.
If Past Perfect, Past Perfect Future
S + had + been + Adj/Adv/N S + would/should + have + been + Adj/Adv/N
S + had not + been + Adj/Adv/N S + would/should not + have+been+Adj/Adv/N
S + had + V3 S + would/should + have + V3
S + had not + V3 S + would/should not + have + V3
Fakta: S + was/were + not + Adj/Adv/N
S + was/were + Adj/Adv/N
S + did not + V1
Contoh: S + V2
• If Doni had studied hard, he would have graduated from SMA.
Fakta : Doni did not study hard so he did not graduated from SMA.
• She would have come early if she had got a taxi
- Pola If + S + had dapat dihilangkan If nya menjadi: Had + S + V3 / been.
- Kata sambung Unless = if…….not
- Perubahan rumus dari if clause type 3 ( Perfect ) menjadi
faktanya ( Past Simple )
If Clause type 3 ( Perfect ) Fakta (Past Simple)
• had been/ (would/should have been) was/were not
• had not been/ (would/should have been) was/were not
• had + V3 did not + V1
• had not + V3 V2
Conditional Sentence Exercises
Complete the verbs in the brackets with the appropriate ones
and find their facts esp. for type 2 and 3.
- I ( go ) if I had known.
- If my car ( not break ) down, I should have cought the train.
- If she were older, she (have) more sense\
- If you ( read ) that book carefully, you would inderstand it.
- If the children ( be ) good, they can stay up late.